The effective and sustainable management of rising deer population is of serious conservation concern in Scotland today. Large areas of our uplands and native woodlands have been ecologically impoverished over several centuries, due in large part to the impacts of high deer numbers maintained for sporting and estate capital value purposes. Significant damage to the natural heritage associated with deer management has been on the radar of public authorities for decades. To make progress, fundamental changes to deer management systems are urgently required. This approach will reduce current land management conflicts, and increase other rural development opportunities in our countryside.